Pre-Deposit Plan (Preferred Strategy)

Ended on the 30 November 2022
For instructions on how to use the system and make comments, please see our help guide.

3 Key Land Use Issues

3.1 A development plan is an intervention tool in the development market, influencing where development can and cannot go. In a scenario where the market is delivering the development that an area needs there would be no need for a development plan. The role of the 2RLDP is, therefore, to address the land use issues facing the County Borough through a policy framework that will deliver the desired outcomes.

3.2 An understanding of the issues facing the County Borough is an essential element of the preparation of the 2RLDP and the policy framework will need to be developed to address these issues. An outline of the key issues is set out below to provide context for the Preferred Strategy. A more comprehensive review of the issues is set out in the Review Report. The key issues for the 2RLDP to address are:

National and Regional Issues




Climate change is global issue that will require action at all levels. The 2RLDP will need to address the issues causing climate change and ensure climate change resilience and mitigation are fundamental elements in the design and layout of all new development.


The Impacts of Covid-19, Brexit and the war in Ukraine have had significant adverse impacts upon the country's economy through business closures and supply chain issues. The Preferred Strategy seeks economic growth through the plan period so the 2RLDP will need to directly address these issues.


The need to decarbonise is a nation priority and the 2RLDP will need to proactively promote zero carbon energy generation in combination with reducing energy consumption and increasing energy efficiency.


Wales has a housing shortage as a result of the under-provision of housebuilding over an extended period of time. The 2RLDP will need to promote and deliver both market and affordable housing in places where people want to live in order to provide people with the homes they want to live in.


The South Wales Metro will help deliver an integrated public transport network across the region. The 2RLDP will need to give effect to locally-applicable Metro priorities in land-use terms, and act as a mechanism for delivery of specific proposals.


The 21st Century Schools programme is a significant, long-term capital investment programme, involving collaborative working between Welsh Government and local authorities. The 2RLDP will enable the delivery of specific proposals within the County Borough, in land-use terms.


The County Borough is at the heart of the national growth area identified in Future Wales. The 2RLDP will need to accommodate growth and growth at a level commensurate to the national growth area designation.

Economic Issues




The County Borough has relatively high levels of economic inactivity, low levels of educational attainment and pockets of deprivation as evidenced by the 2019 WIMD. The 2RLDP should seek address these issues to promote economic activity and generate economic growth.


The rate of employment land take-up has been low over the course of the present plan period and there is a significant shortage of available employment land in the Caerphilly Basin to enable companies to expand and grow. The 2RLDP will need to ensure that employment sites are deliverable, and that appropriate employment land is made available in the Caerphilly Basin.


A high proportion of the workforce remains employed in manufacturing, which is a sector that is projected to decline over the plan period. The 2RLDP will need to promote diversification in its sectoral employment and build in its current strengths.


The Welsh Government projections project that the economic population within the County Borough will decrease significantly over the plan period. The 2RLDP will need to ensure sufficient land is identified to generate the types and numbers of jobs that will attract people to work and live in the County Borough.


Town and retail centres provide a significant level of employment within the County Borough and the 2RLDP will need to maximise the opportunities for employment within these centres in order to deliver the economic benefit.


Tourism is an important part of the economy in terms of ongoing, long-term growth, as well as being a key factor in developing the identity of the County Borough. The 2RLDP will need to maximise opportunities for developing new, and enhancing and expanding existing, tourist attractions and integrate these with other attractions throughout the County Borough as a cohesive tourist offer.


The County Borough continues to have a high rate of out-commuting (the second highest in the region in absolute terms). This will need to be addressed by a co-ordinated approach between increasing employment opportunities in the County Borough and improving accessibility between major residential areas and employment centres, as well as accommodating home-working which could have significant impacts on travel needs.


Digital connectivity will continue to play an important role in enabling agile working and facilitating economic growth. The 2RLDP will promote and support the delivery of digital and communications infrastructure to meet the neds of users and providers for the plan period.

Social Issues




Natural change has been a key element in the County Borough's growth throughout its history. However, the Welsh Government Population Office projections project that the number of deaths will outnumber the number of births, and this will result in negative natural change throughout the plan period. Consequently the 2RLDP will need to make proactively attract people into the County Borough to deliver growth in accordance with the Preferred Strategy.


The County Borough has a relatively high level of limiting long-term illness and low life expectancy. The 2RLDP should seek to give effect, insofar as it is able, to measures which contribute to addressing this, in land-use terms.


Changes in the retail environment mean that the 2RLDP will need to be highly flexible to respond to the changing needs of town and retail centres and almost certainly a diversification of uses across these centres will be required.


The 2RLDP will need to continue to protect and improve the provision of urban natural greenspace and address issues in the provision of sport and recreational space across the County Borough to promote the well-being of residents.


The 2RLDP will need to enable delivery of community infrastructure provision. Many of the services and facilities required to be delivered are the responsibility of bodies other than the Council and, as such, the Council will need to work with other public sector bodies to identify the land required to deliver the necessary facilities and infrastructure required.


Underpinning development with sound placemaking principles is the way to deliver sustainable development and resilient communities. The 2RLDP will need to ensure that the policy framework is underpinned by placemaking.


The County Borough includes areas of high deprivation. The 2RLDP will need facilitate measures that will alleviate deprivation through land allocations and a flexible policy framework.

Environmental Issues




As part of the climate change emergency addressing decarbonisation is a key driver for delivering change. The Council has declared a 'climate emergency' which will involve a number of measures, including:

  • Promoting and delivering renewable energy generation schemes;
  • Promoting climate change adaptation and mitigation through development schemes;
  • Embracing sustainable drainage and reducing flood risk;
  • Promoting a significant modal shift to sustainable transport (rail, bus, cycling and walking);
  • Providing electric charging facilities for electric vehicles.


The 2RLDP will also need to address air quality issues in the County Borough, particularly those arising from transport related activity, which has led to 2 Air Quality Management Areas being identified.


The 2RLDP will need to maximise the benefits arising from the South Wales Metro investment and should promote further improvements and additions to the transport network, including highway improvements where these have significant benefits in terms of congestion and sustainable transport reliability, and active travel improvements to increase connectivity and accessibility.


The 2RLDP will need to ensure the maintenance and enhancement of blue and green infrastructure is a fundamental element in the design of all development. In addition the 2RLDP will need to protect and enhance:

  • Areas of ecological and geological importance;
  • Areas of high landscape value;
  • Important areas of open space.


The 2RLDP will look to utilise brownfield land before greenfield land in the first instance, though this does not mean that greenfield development should not take place where insufficient viable and deliverable brownfield sites are available to meet the County Borough requirements.


The County Borough contains a number of priority habitats that support ecological connectivity. The 2RLDP should support and enhance this network and maximise opportunities for biodiversity net gain and the improvement of ecological links.


Local planning authorities are required to follow the waste hierarchy, which seeks to reduce use and then reuse, recycle or recover before the option of disposal is taken. Whilst the provision for waste infrastructure is made at a regional level, the 2RLDP will need to include measures to reduce and recycle waste throughout the policy framework.


The County Borough contains areas of landscape sensitivity. The 2RLDP should consider new development within this context.


It is a requirement that the Council Maintains a 10-year land bank of minerals to ensure its future contribution to the regional aggregates total. The 2RLDP will need to ensure sufficient reserves are permitted to maintain the landbank through to the end of the plan period, whilst minimising the adverse impacts of minerals activity on the landscape.

Cultural Issues




The 2RLDP should seek to give effect, insofar as it is able, to measures which foster the development and use of the Welsh language.


The 2RLDP should consider new development within the context of the variety of heritage assets that exist within the County Borough, and the settings of those assets.


Heritage assets are often found in the middle of the County Borough' s centres, areas generally at risk from flooding and climate change impacts. The 2RLDP should promote resilience and adaptation in the heritage assets of the County Borough, promoting sustainability of the built environment through its own heritage assets.


There are a large number of heritage assets that through adaptive reuse could provide a valuable housing and mixed-use economic resource. The 2RLDP should maximise opportunities for adaptive reuse of the built heritage environment to assist in the regeneration of town centres and increase the potential for rehabilitation of empty sites for housing and economic regeneration.


Placemaking has the potential to significantly reinforce the cultural and historic environment throughout the County Borough. The 2RLDP should ensure that it maximises these opportunities.


The heritage of the County Borough is a significant generator for the tourist economy in the County Borough. The 2RLDP should be flexible to enable the enhancement and broadening of heritage tourism, whilst protecting the heritage assets that enable it to contribute to the economy.

For instructions on how to use the system and make comments, please see our help guide.
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